Whereas the School of Athens represents that truth is discovered through human reasoning, Paul represents that truth is given by God through revelation. Reason and revelation (natural and special) can work well together. They are not inherently adversarial. Western civilization and modern science are products of the agreements and inevitable tensions between the two.
Historians acknowledge that Aristotle was the first to give us a scientific methodology, but it was the Christian worldview that gave birth to modern science in the 17th century. With the invention of the telescope Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Newton, among many others, studied the heavens motivated by their conviction that God created the heavens and the earth.